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Thiamine forms an essential part of several enzyme systems. These mainly involve the release of energy from absorbed or stored carbohydrates and fats. There are three main routes for releasing energy: glycolysis -- for example, the release of energy in working muscles; the citric acid cycle which occurs within cells; and the pentose phosphate cycle which takes place mainly in the liver, kidneys, adrenal cortex, mammary glands and blood erythrocytes. Enzymes are responsible for each of the chemical changes. Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is a coenzyme factor directly involved with each energy-releasing process. It also seems to have a direct role in the activity of the nervous system, stimulating peripheral nerves.